At the same time, the Upper South had an excess number of slaves because of a shift to mixed-crops agriculture, which was less labor-intensive than tobacco. In a study of 2, slaves in by the economist Richard Sutch, he found that on slave-holdings with at least one woman, the average ratio of women to men exceeded Selective breeding between slaves with the aim of developing particular physical traits was uncommon, however,  as most slaves were unrestricted in their choice of sexual partners. Men tended to be assigned to large field gangs. Boston: South End Press, p. During this time period, the terms "breeding slaves", "child bearing women", "breeding period", and "too old to breed" became familiar.
Kyla. Age: 23.
All rights were to the owner of the slave, with the slave having no rights of self-determination either to his or her own person, spouse, or children.
Lyric. Age: 24.
Slave breeding in the United States
Boston: South End Press, p. The slaves were managed as assets in the same way as chattel ; slaveholders passed laws regulating slavery and the slave trade designed to protect their financial interests; there was little protection for the slaves. During this time period, the terms "breeding slaves", "child bearing women", "breeding period", and "too old to breed" became familiar. Plantation agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Slaveholders began to think that slavery was grounded in the Bible. Workers were assigned to the task for which they were best physically suited according to the overseer.